"Landscape ecology emphasizes broad spatial scales and the ecological effects of the spatial patterning of ecosystems. Specifically, it considers a) the development and dynamics of spatial heterogeneity, b) the interactions and exchanges across heterogeneous landscapes, c) the influences of spatial heterogeneity on biotic and abiotic processes, and d) the management of spatial heterogeneity. ... Ecologists, land managers, and planners have traditionally ignored interactions between the different elements in a landscape — the elements are usually treated as different systems."
Monica G. Turner, from "Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process," Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1989
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